Vision is not static

 

 

Of all our senses-Smell, Hearing, Sight, Taste and Touch,

sight-vision  is our most developed.  It is our dominant sense and the means by which the average person receives the vast majority of their information and education. 

It has been shown that nearly 85% of all of the information that we gather in a lifetime is taken into our minds through our eyes.

The quality of our vision, how well and truly we are seeing, to a great extent determines the quality of our personal reality which shapes how we live our lives.

 

The information that we take in our eyes is the raw material from which we create our own sense of reality.  The context that is based upon past experiences determines our behavior in present circumstances.  Perhaps even more importantly, our eyes are the only organs of our bodies that are actually outgrowths of our brain.

 The eye’s retina is in reality, a specialized form of brain tissue.  This makes the interconnection and interrelationship between our eyes and our brain the most profound organic relationship on our body in our being. 

 The information taken in by the eyes is processed by the brain more deeply and completely, than the information that we receive through all our other senses.

 Eyes & Brain are a team

As we exchange our perceptions of what we can and cannot see, we can become more open to viewing the world as a whole new adventure.

We ride our bike down a country road watching for pot holes, frogs or sticks.  We end up maneuvering around these objects and adjust our speed, while visually monitoring our position.

 

Moments later we might get into our car, drive to the grocery store past fields with turkeys, ducks and geese always judging where we are relative to other vehicles and the flow of traffic. We arrive at our destination having made numerous conscious and subconscious judgments with varying degrees.  Whether it is shopping for groceries, watching a ball game or reading the news paper our vision plays an essential role in each of these activities through the collaboration of eyes and brain.

Vision occurs neither in the eyes nor in the brain, but emerges from the collaboration of the eyes, the visual pathway and the brain. Vision is a pervasive aspect of our existence which permeates all of our activities. Vision develops and, due to neural plasticity, can be enhanced. Optometry is the discipline dedicated to the care of all aspects of the visual process.

                                         Eyes are ruled by the brain

Seeing takes place in the our brain, not in our eyes.

Being able to understand esophoric and exophoric behavior opens up a window into how we experience our world. What one sees, how we perceive, interpret and react is all a result of our individual inner world.

Esophoria (Eso)- (clinical condition) a tendency of the eyes to want to turn more inward than necessary when an individual is viewing an object at near or at distance, which may cause the individual to experience eyestrain and other symptoms.

The esophoric child uses many references to him/herself with I’s and me’s.  He/she asks of every test, “How did I do? Did I do it well?  Did I do it right?”

Esophores tend to:

  • Be introverted.
  • Look closer and judge space incorrectly.
  • Receives information better from the printed (seeing) word than from the spoken (auditory) word.

 

 

  •  Dislike being corrected.
  • Make careless mistakes.
  • Read word for word.

 Symptoms:

  • Headaches.
  • Blurred vision.
  • Eyestrain.
  • Intermittent double vision.

 Exophoria (Exo)- (clinical condition) a tendency of the eyes to want to turn more outward than necessary when an individual is viewing an object at near or at distance, which may cause the individual to experience eyestrain and other symptoms. 

  The Exophoric Child tends to relate his/her space world as a complete totality with him/herself as part of it in his alignment which is an outwardizing movement. His/her performance should be complimented rather than him/her as an individual.

 

 Exophores tend to:

  • Not center in.
  • Not sustain near point attention, but tend to look away.
  • Daydream.

 

 

  • Have lower identification skills.
  • See where something is and not what it is. 
  • Miss detail.
  • Jump from field to field to take in information.

 Symptoms:

  • Eyestrain.
  • Headaches.
  • Blurred vision distance and near.
  • Double vision at far and near.
  • Sleepiness.
  • Difficulty concentration on reading material.
  • Decreasing comprehension over time
  • Pulling sensation around the eyes.
  • Print appears to move.

Handwriting and Learning Disabilities

HANDWRITING AND LEARNING DISABILITIES

Many children with learning difficulties also have writing difficulties.

Ernest J. Kahn, O.D., discovered after administering the “copy form” tests to many of his patients that:

  1. Practically all nearsighted children held their pencil no more than a quarter of an inch from the tip.
  2. Almost all children with learning difficulties exhibited some form of unusual pencil grip and fine motor in co-ordination.
  3. In all instances of improper pencil grip, the fingers blocked the line of sight from the eye to the pencil tip, causing the writer to bring the head to the side and/or down closer to the page in order to see what was being written.

Many of those who work with learning-disabled children have found that these children, in addition to having problems with reading, also have problems with handwriting.

 

Awareness of the problem is the key to change

CORRECT POSTURE

Correct handwriting posture is very important.

  • Both feet should be on the floor.
  • For right-handed the body should be slightly turned to the left.
  • For left-handed the body should be  slightly turned to the right.

 

The position of the paper is also very important.

 In many cases, just learning how to correctly orient the paper may help poor handwriting.

  • Right-handed writer should have the paper turned so that the bottom left-hand corner points directly to the navel.
  • Left-handed writer should have the bottom right-hand corner pointing to the navel.
  • The paper is aligned in such a manner that the sides of the paper are parallel to the writing arm when it is resting on the paper.

 

  The non-writing hand is not just a “paperweight.” 

  • The non-writing hand has the role much like that of a typewriter roller as it moves the paper up to prepare for writing on the next line.
  • The non-writing hand plays a very important role in paper orientation while writing. 
  • The non-writing hand should be kept resting on the side of the paper, with the elbow on the table.  This allows an open view for writing and puts the body in balance to keep the paper from moving, while writing. 
  • The elbow and forearm of the writing hand must lie on the desk. It is better to keep the elbow in place and move the paper upward as writing is done. The writing hand moves across the page from left to right and line to line.
  • The distance from the eyes to the writing or reading material should always be the distance from the elbow to the middle knuckle,  aka  “The Harmon Distance.”

 

 The way students hold a pencil or pen to write, the manner in which they orient their paper, heir posture while writing, and the way in which they form their letters will be carried over to adulthood.

Copying and Reproduction Skills

Many parents are concerned with their children’s handwriting abilities.  Graphomotor performance is related to visual analysis, motor planning, and spatial organization. 

Writing and copying skills principally relate to the following visual skills:

  1.  Fixation – the ability to direct and maintain steady central visual attention on a target.
  2. Ocular motor skills – the neuro-muscular control skills which point the visual system on a moving target (pursuit eye movements) or jump from one object to another as in reading (saccadic eye movements).
  3.  Accommodation – the vision skill which involves focusing.
  4.  Binocularity – the ability to team the eyes.  This allows for coordinated eye movements as targets move from distance to near.  This skill has a sensory and motor aspect, information on location (depth perception) and allows both eyes to remain on the target as it moves closer and further from the eyes.

 Children have been asked to write meaningful material before they have learned to write.

    

We often hear the term “reading readiness”

(a time when the child is developmentally ready for reading).

We seldom hear of “writing readiness.”

Reports show that children with learning disabilities, in addition to having reading problems, tend to reverse letters, invert letters, place letters and numerals on their sides, mirror their writing; in general have numerous handwriting problems.  These errors have been reported as “additional problems.” Such writing however is the cause of vision problems.

Mistakes, wrong moves, incorrect sequence, etc. have been shrugged off as unimportant.  As a result, many early handwriting problems have been permitted to become established as habit.  This, we contend, is responsible for many of serious reading problems from which 15% of our children suffer.

Life after stroke

NATIONAL STROKE ASSOCIATION

TYPES OF REHABILITATION

There are three primary means of rehabilitation.

Physical therapy (PT) helps restore physical functioning and skills like walking and range of movement. Major impairments which PT works on include partial or one-sided paralysis, faulty balance and foot drop.

Occupational therapy (OT) involves relearning the skills needed for everyday living such as eating, toileting, dressing and taking care of oneself.

Speech language pathology is another major rehabilitative therapy. Some stroke survivors are left with aphasia, an impairment of language and speaking skills in which the stroke survivor can think as well as before the stroke, but is unable to get the right words out or is unable to process words coming in. Aphasia is usually caused by a stroke on the left side of the brain. Speech language pathology can teach the aphasic stroke survivor and his or her family members methods for coping with this frustrating impairment. Speech language pathologists also work to help the stroke survivor cope with memory loss and other “thought” problems caused by the stroke.

Vision Therapy (VT) Many stroke survivors have visual problems following their strokes. To be able to see well, the brain and the eyes have to work together. Because part of the brain is damaged in a stroke, vision problems can be partial or complete loss of sight. Stroke survivors may also experience blurred vision, confusion or difficulty in performing visual activities, and eye strain. For stroke survivors with vision problems, it’s harder to go back to work or even perform simple household tasks. As soon as possible after a stroke, stroke survivors should have a complete eye exam to find out if their eyes are healthy. This exam will uncover any stroke-related vision problems. Opthalmologists or optometrists are important members of a stroke patient’s rehabilitation team. They can diagnose specific problems and recommend a treatment plan. Different types of vision therapy are available to retrain, strengthen, or sharpen vision following stroke. One new form of therapy, NovaVision VRT(TM), uses a computer-like device to help improve eye sight after stroke. The goal of the therapy is to train healthy parts of the brain to perform the work of the part of the brain damaged by stroke. According to research, neither the age of the patient nor when the stroke occurred makes a difference in the effectiveness of this type of therapy